This book is in Open Review. I want your feedback to make the book better for you and other readers. To add your annotation, select some text and then click the on the pop-up menu. To see the annotations of others, click the button in the upper right hand corner of the page

# Chapter 13 Intermittent State Space Model

So far we have discussed data that has regular occurrence. This is a characteristic of a well established product that is sold on every observation. For example, daily sales of bread in a supermarket would have this regularity. However, there are time series, where non-zero values do not happen on every observation. In the context of demand forecasting, this is called “intermittent demand.” The conventional example of such demand is monthly sales of jet engines: they will contain a lot of zeroes, when nobody buys the product and then all of a sudden several units, again followed by zeroes. However, this problem does not only apply to such expensive exotic products - the retailers face this all the time for a variety of products, especially when sales are recorded on daily basis.

One of the simplest definitions of intermittent demand is that it is the demand that happens at irregular frequency. This definition relies on the specific frequency of data. If we work with hourly sales of products in the supermarket, it will inevitably be intermittent, because we cannot predict, when a customer will come and buy a product. However, if we aggregate this data to daily or even weekly data, the intermittence will most probably disappear, making the demand look regular. So, the problem of zeroes in the data might disappear if you select the time aggregation level correctly.

You might also meet the term “count data” (or “integer-valued data”) in a similar context, but there is a difference between count and intermittent data. The former implies that demand can take integer values only and can be typically modelled via Poisson, Binomial or Negative Binomial distributions. It does not necessarily contain zeroes and does not explicitly allow demand to happen at random. If there are zeroes, then it is assumed that they are just one of the possible values of a distribution. In case of intermittent demand, we explicitly acknowledge that demand might not happen, but if it happens then the demand size will be greater than zero. Furthermore, intermittent demand does not necessarily need to be integer-valued. For example, daily energy consumption for charging electric vehicles would typically be intermittent (because the vehicle owners do not charge them every day), but the non-zero consumption will not be integer. Having said that, count distributions can be used in some cases of intermittent demand, but they do not necessarily always provide a good approximation of complex reality.

Before we move towards the proper discussion of the topic in context of ADAM, we should acknowledge that at the heart of what follows, there lies the following model : $\begin{equation} y_t = o_t z_t , \tag{13.1} \end{equation}$ where $$o_t$$ is the demand occurrence variable, which can be either zero or one and has some probability of occurrence $$p_t$$, $$z_t$$ is the demand sizes captured by a model (for example, ADAM ETS) and $$y_t$$ is the final observed demand. This model in context of intermittent demand was originally proposed by , but similar models (e.g. Hurdle and Zero Inflated Poisson) exist in other, non-forecasting related iterature.

In this chapter, we will discuss the intermittent state space model (13.1), both parts of which can be modelled via ADAM models, and we will see how they can be used, what they imply and how they connect to the conventional regular demand. If ETS model is used for $$z_t$$ then (13.1) will be called iETS. So, iETS(M,N,N) model refers to the intermittent state space model, where demand sizes are modelled via ETS(M,N,N). ETS can also be used for occurrence part of the model, so if the discussion is focused on demand occurrence part of the model, $$o_t$$ (as in Section 13.1), we will use oETS’’ instead. Similarly, we can use terms iARIMA and oARIMA, referrin either to the full model or just an occurrence part of it. Note however that while ARIMA can be used in theory, it is not yet implemented for the occurrence part of the model. So we will focus the discussion in this chapter on ADAM ETS. Furthermore, depending on how the occurrence part is modelled, the notations above can be expanded to include references to specific parts of the occurrence part of the model. This is discussed in detail in Section 13.1.

This chapter is based on . If you want to know more about intermittent demand forecasting, is a great textbook on the topic, covering all the main aspects of it in appropriate detail.

### References

• Boylan, J.E., Syntetos, A.A., 2021. Intermittent Demand Forecasting. Context, Methods and Applications. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 111 River st., Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA.
• Croston, J.D., 1972. Forecasting and Stock Control for Intermittent Demands. Operational Research Quarterly (1970-1977). 23, 289. https://doi.org/10.2307/3007885
• Svetunkov, I., Boylan, J.E., 2019. Multiplicative state-space models for intermittent time series. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.35897.06242