While there is a lot to say about multistep losses, I’ve decided to write the final post on one of them and leave the topic alone for a while. Here it goes. Last time, we discussed MSEh and TMSE, and I mentioned that both of them impose shrinkage and have some advantages and disadvantages. One […]

# Univariate models

# Multistep loss functions: Trace MSE

As we discussed last time, there are two possible strategies in forecasting: recursive and direct. The latter aligns with the estimation of a model using a so-called multistep loss function, such as Mean Squared Error for h-steps-ahead forecast (MSEh). But this is not the only loss function that can be efficiently used for model estimation. […]

# Recursive vs Direct Forecasting Strategy

Have you heard about the recursive vs direct forecasts? There’s literature about them in the areas of both ML and statistics. What’s so special about them? Here is a short post. The term “recursive” forecasting refers to the approach, when we produce one-step-ahead forecast first, then use it to produce two-steps-ahead, three-steps-ahead, and so on. […]

# Detecting patterns in white noise

Back in 2015, when I was working on my paper on Complex Exponential Smoothing, I conducted a simple simulation experiment to check how ARIMA and ETS select components/orders in time series. And I found something interesting… One of the important steps in forecasting with statistical models is identifying the existing structure. In the case of […]

# What’s wrong with ARIMA?

Have you heard of ARIMA? It is one of the benchmark forecasting models used in different academic experiments, although it is not always popular among practitioners. But why? What’s wrong with ARIMA? ARIMA has been a standard forecasting model in statistics for ages. It gained popularity with the famous Box & Jenkins (1970) book and […]

# Why you should not use Holt-Winters method

Whenever I see results of an experiment that include Holt-Winters method, I shrug. You should not use it, and here is why. Holt-Winters was developed in 1960 by a student of Charles Holt, Peter Winters (Winters, 1960). He extended Holt’s exponential smoothing method (the method that introduced a trend component) to include a seasonal component. […]

# Staying Positive: Challenges and Solutions in Using Pure Multiplicative ETS Models

Authors: Ivan Svetunkov, John E. Boylan Journal: IMA Journal of Management Mathematics Abstract: Exponential smoothing in state space form (ETS) is a popular forecasting technique, widely used in research and practice. While the additive error ETS models have been well studied, the multiplicative error ones have received much less attention in forecasting literature. Still, these […]

# Why you should care about Exponential Smoothing

On 15th December 2023, I presented in a CMAF Friday Forecasting Talks webinar on the topic of “Why you should care about exponential smoothing”. The motivation was to give a fresh view on the good old model and show how it started, how it evolved over time and how it can be improved. With this […]

# iETS: State space model for intermittent demand forecasting

Authors: Ivan Svetunkov, John E. Boylan Journal: International Journal of Production Economics Abstract: Inventory decisions relating to items that are demanded intermittently are particularly challenging. Decisions relating to termination of sales of product often rely on point estimates of the mean demand, whereas replenishment decisions depend on quantiles from interval estimates. It is in this […]

# Multi-step Estimators and Shrinkage Effect in Time Series Models

Authors: Ivan Svetunkov, Nikos Kourentzes, Rebecca Killick Journal: Computational Statistics Abstract: Many modern statistical models are used for both insight and prediction when applied to data. When models are used for prediction one should optimise parameters through a prediction error loss function. Estimation methods based on multiple steps ahead forecast errors have been shown to […]